The 3  meanings

 

  of

 

 

 Colon: 

(1) Punctuation
(2) Religious    
(3) Anatomical  

 ***********************************************

 

 

This is the original title when it was first published in 1991  

The Religious and Mythological Powers in the Name of Cristóvão Colon

By Manuel Luciano da Silva Medical Doctor  

  President of

Knights of Corte Reais

Bristol County Medical Center

Friends of Dighton Rock Museum

Copyright Office, Washington D. C.  

 Effective Date of Registration Feb 12, 1991

 

************************************

  Introduction

  Mythological traditions

 

Recently, (1991) I read an excellent book, The Power of Myth which is a dialogue between  the distinguished journalist Bill Moyers and Joseph Campbell, "the foremost authority on mythology, a preeminent scholar, writer, teacher, whose work has had a profound influence on millions. To him, mythology was the song of the Universe, the music of the spheres".

 

I learned a lot from this fascinating book. Campbell's answers to Moyer's keen questions are bold, enlightening and down to earth. He makes some remarkable statements: "We have today a demythologized world". "Today's youth does not have myths". "The kids have to make their own, graffiti all over the city".

 

Analyzing the myths of the Modern World, Campbell selects today's mythological symbols: (1) automobiles, (2) airplanes, (3) weapons (revolvers); (4) machines (washers, driers) and (5) computers. All these are material myths, without any metaphoric or spiritual meanings. They wear out, without giving us the inner satisfaction of reaching the hope of eternity.

 

Campbell asks a pertinent question: "Why do we need mythology when the great majority of people say: all these Greek gods and stuff are irrelevant to the human condition today". Then he goes on to give a list of examples revealing how mythology has penetrated our society. What has been considered sociological is indeed mythological. A judge wearing a robe, a soldier in a uniform, and the presidency of the United States, all have mythological roles.

 

The Greeks had an abundance of mythological gods. Their gods were very popular because they were imperfect, they behaved like humans.  Campbell says that perfection is a bore. Indeed we love: Jackie Gleason, Charlie Chaplin, and Lucy, because they were always in imperfect situations...

 

"A society without myths disintegrates. Myths have messages valid for life". Today we are going to visit the ruins of Pompeii and study its mythology. The powerful god of Pompeii was Priapus (Penis). We will verify the Pompeian mythology has impregnated all Western Civilization  and its meaning continues very vibrant in  the United States of America! 

 

Before Jesus Christ was born, two thousand years ago,  what was the universal symbol  representing  God?  The phallic symbol!  Who invented the word phallic? The Phoenicians!  We are going to see that the Catholic Church started using and still uses today the phallic  symbol as an icon of power!

 

Do you know that the mythological symbol Priapus appears on American currency, on the United States Capitol and on the American National Monuments? Do you know the phallic meaning of the Washington's  Monument in our nation's capital?

 

Do you know that Priapus is represented by the  Greek punctuation sign Colon

[ : ] ?  And in Hebrew this colon sign  [ : ] is called Zarco.

 

Do you know that the name of the famous navigator Christopher Columbus was Cristóvão  Colon  derived from the  religious and mythological meaning of Priapus or Colon? 

 

Do you know that every American City has a Phallic or Colon Symbol? Is this to show their authority power to ward off the evil eye?

  Manuel Luciano da Silva, M. D.

January 17, 1991

 



The Religious and Mythological Powers

         in the Name of Cristovão Colon

            By Manuel Luciano da Silva, M. D. 

 


                 The  3 meanings of Colon:  

               (1)    Punctuation 

               (2)     Religious or Mythological

                       (3)       Anatomical

 

(1)  Punctuation:  

            We are all familiar with the colon and semicolon signs because we used them everyday in our writing. But it does not hurt to pay homage to Pythagoras, the great Greek mathematician, because he was the one who established the signs of punctuation such as  comma, period, and colon and semicolon.   The Greek discovered the vowels and the Phoenicians gave us the consonants, two great contributions to mankind!  

 

 The only thing different we have to know now is that in Portugal and Spain, five centuries ago, the colon and semicolon were both called "separators" of sentences. Colon was the "perfect separator" and semicolon the "imperfect separator", but both were pronounced the same: Colon.

 

  (2) Religious Meaning  

The religious meanings of both names Christopher and Colon inspired the navigator because he wanted to be in God's  good graces and also wished to spread the faith to the new peoples he would encounter in his discoveries.  

 

 

  For now, let us  review the Sigla: 

                Columbus' Sigla

 

Colon       Cristóvão      Colon  

Click on photo for larger view

 

  The review of the name Cristofõm  has already been done in the first article of this series: "Columbus was 100% Portuguese - based exclusively on original documents". 

 

[ : XpõFERENS ./ ] has two parts: Xpõ (Greek) meaning Christ or Cristo and FERENS (Latin) meaning "carrier". Therefore the name Christopher,  or  Cristóvão,  means "the one who carries  Christ". Saint  Christopher or  São Cristovão  was the saint who carried the Christ Child across the Jordan River.

  This Saint has been the patron of  travelers.  To assure a safe journey automobile drivers display amulets on the dashboards in the form of statuettes or medals depicting St. Christopher.    

 

 

            The Mythological Meaning  

  (1)   The Mythological Power is contained in the word Colon.  Colon is the Greek punctuation mark [ : ]  or [ . / ]  which has  the phonetic sound = Colon.   

 

                   Let us analyze the Mythological Power

  Mythological  Power --  We are going to  consult a magnificent book which will introduce us into the realm of male genitalia  and its  mythological power,  in the City of Pompeii, before Jesus Christ was born! Click on photo for larger view

 

                                                  

Bas-relief of a Temple with sculpted Phallus in Pompeii.

(From Eros in Pompeii, page 108)  

 

 

  The excellent book is called:  Sex in History by  Reay Tannahill. Let us look at page  page 118:

"In the way, the Roman god Liber, once patron of growth and fertility, took on some aspects of the Greek Priapus. He was generally represented by a phallic symbol, which stood not only for sex but conquest, defiance, and protection against the evil eye -- a kind of magical, multipurpose obscene gesture. The word phallus comes from the Greek. The Latin was fascinum, which had the associated meaning of "magic spirit " and this is the derivative that most dictionaries prudishly give for the modern word "fascinate". 

  The marvelous book  Eros in Pompeii  by Michael Grant and Antonia Mulas, explains on page 104 and continues on page 108:  

 

  "An evil sight could be neutralized by making an appropriate gesture with the fingers crossed (symbolizing the act of intercourse). Such sexual symbolism was protective, as with the object illustrated above. This is a plaque, probably from Pompeii. It shows the facade of a small temple housing a phallus that has been given the status of a tutelary deity to protect the house from the evil eye. The custom of placing the sign of the phallus on houses to avert evil spirits continued into medieval times, and examples have been found on the walls of churches".  

 

                                                       

                                      Click on photo for larger view
                                
American Dollar to ward off the evil the eye 

 

                                                        The evil eye myth

  Since the time of the Egyptians the evil eye myth has impregnated all cultures. The belief in  mythological power or superstition was  always very strong among the Greeks and other Mediterranean civilizations to the point that  it still exists today  all over the world! Throughout the ages the eyes were considered to possess magic powers. What  male characteristic  is most appealing to women?  His eyes. Often I have observed, when  speaking  to  a woman, her rapid eye movements fixating, alternately on mine. Why? Because through the expression of the  eyes the woman discovers that the man has strength, leadership, energy and masculine self-assurance! Why do women today use eye makeup? To make their eyes fascinating like Cleopatra's? 

Click on photo for larger view  

 

                                                

     Decorative brickwork on one of Pompeii's house. Set in the wall is a Phallic  symbol                        de signed to ward off the evil eye. (From Eros in Pompeii, page 30)

  The extracts from Sex in History  and Eros in Pompeii  are fundamental  information needed  for us  to  make the correct diagnosis of  the name Colon.  

                                              Lower part of the Sigla
   
                                        
Click on photo for larger view  

 

                                       

 

The Mythological  Power  is demonstrated in the intrinsic symbols of colon [ : ]  and  semicolon     [ . / ]  placed at  both ends of the Sigla  depicting   "phallic symbols, which stood not only for sex but conquest, defiance, and protection against the evil eye." 

  Are not these the powers  -- religious and mythological  -- needed by someone who was  going to face the gigantic task of crossing the unknown Atlantic for the first time?  The name Cristóvão had great religious protective power.  

 

  The name Colon embodied mythological power of defiance contained in the meaning of the name Colon -- which gave the navigator the enormous strength to face the task of discovering the New World.   

 

 

         For us today to comprehend the religious and mythological powers 

       of the name Colon, we are going to analyze the phallic symbols that 

       still dominate and exist in every county and major cities in the western 

       world, and which the general public is not aware of their meaning 

       and much less their origin! 

 

                       The Mythological Power of Pompeii  

  To better understand the mythological power of the phallic symbol we have to visit the excavations of the ancient city of  Pompeii, and the National Museum of Naples (The Secret Collection), in Italy.  

Greek colonists founded Pompeii in the year 750 B.C. The name Pompeii is thought to be Greek and may derive from the verb "pempo" meaning "to dispatch".

  Pompeii's final  tragedy occurred in the afternoon of August 24th, 98 A. D., with  the eruptions of the Vesuvius,  a cataclysmic explosion which buried the prosperous, and  beautiful  city  of 20,000  inhabitants under twenty feet of ashes and lava!  This catastrophe preserved in an impressive manner Pompeii's magnificent architecture, right-angle streets, public, commercial and private buildings, temples, paintings, and households objects.

  "Indeed Pompeii has something magic and mysterious about it. And its return to life, exactly as it died, brought to sudden halt in the middle of its everyday existence, makes it not only fascinating, but at the same time more touching and more human."   (1)  

 

  If we want to see the Greek way of life as it was two thousand years ago, -- frozen in time --  we have to go to Pompeii to study the  way the  Pompeians lived, what they ate, drank and what kind of Gods they worshiped.  

  In Greece the Greeks were always involved in wars, Greeks versus Greeks.   They  also  had  too many philosophers... In addition many countries have stolen the best artifacts from Greece to fill their national museums... In contrast, the people in Pompeii, having  a strong  Hellenic culture,  were much more practical and took life with much more common sense.  Their paintings  and artifacts  testify to that.  

 

  The Gods of Pompeii

  The Patron  Goddess of  Athens was Athena the Virgin, worshiped in the temple of Parthenon on the Acropolis. The Patron Goddess of Pompeii was Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love in all its forms, protectress of marriage and the model  of ideal affection.   ( 5 )

  According to tradition, Priapus was the son of Dionysus and Aphrodite.  "Priapus, an ugly god with huge genitals, promoted fertility." (5)

  Because Priapus, the phallic symbol,  had the "power of warding off the evil eye", he became very popular  among the Pompeians. This credo was spread throughout the Greek world.

When the Romans conquered the Greeks they adopted their  Gods but gave them Latin names. Thus  Priapus became Fascinum,  the Roman god that  had the "power of  warding off the evil eye". But Priapus or Fascinum had also the power of conquest, defiance, and  authority.  

  It is from Fascinum that the words of  "fasces", "fascism"  and "fascinate"   originate. The Roman emperors adopted the  Fasces (bundle) as the icon of supreme authority. This mythological   or phallic symbol of authority has had a tremendous impact on  Western civilization (Mussolini, Franco, Salazar)  including  "Faces" (Maces) found on  U. S. A.  coins,  the American  coat of arms, and American Monuments.

Click on photo for larger view  

Relief of a Phallus on a paving-stone in Pompeii.  My photo taken in 1994  

 

  Pompeian frank sex

  Pio Ciprotti described the personality of the Pompeians this way: "the jocular, free-and-easy, pungent spirit of the Pompeians, resembled  that of the modern inhabitants of the region".  ( 1 )

 Michael Grant in Eros in Pompeii gives a perfect panorama of the human sexuality and mythological beliefs of Pompeians (p. 66):  

 

  "Pompeian sex was franker and less inhibited than it is in the modern world, even in permissive 1975. There are various reasons for this. Representations of phalli were used as safeguards against the evil eye -- even more frequently than similar shaped coral horns which are believed to neutralize the evil eye today. Popular aspects of ancient religion, notably the cults of Pompeii's patron deities Venus (Aphrodite) and Dionysus, ranged all the way from an exalted spirituality to a positive encouragement of sex in which  even the after-life tended to be regarded, by the less spiritual adherents of these faiths, as a jolly sensual debauch. And the garden god Priapus was blatantly phallic."  

 

The Pompeian  ideal and belief was:  "have a good time while you can. Life is too short. Enjoy it while you have it." The Pompeians were positive and optimistic people. They emphasized the meaning of the words luck and happiness, "felicitas" and "felix". And since sex ranked as an unsurpassed way of enjoying oneself, that is one of the main explanations of the powerful atmosphere of sexuality that is detectable in the city. (p. 69)  

Good and bad days

  The Greeks, and  Romans were a superstitious people. They  had the auspicious  (fas) days (good) and the  inauspicious (nefas)  bad days which they believed affected the outcome of all their activities. Today we have the horoscopes published by the daily newspapers... We must recall that at the time Pompeii was buried (79AD) the Catholic Church had not  yet developed  its puritanism and taboos on  human  sexuality...

 

  Michael Grant,  "Eros in Pompeii", p. 110, describes Pompeii's Phallic (Priapus) Cult:

  "The cult of the phallus was widespread in the ancient world, and there is evidence of its worship  in India, Asia Minor, Egypt and Greece. The Romans identified the phallus with the god Fascinus, (Priapus),  and attributed him with the power to make new shoots spring from withered plants, to make sterile women fertile, and to ward off the "evil eye". Thus the worship of the phallus, or the use of phallic symbolism, served a very real function in Roman society." 

"The phallic ritual was originally free from vulgarity, and was followed in order to solicit the good offices of a divinity who was capable  of keeping away the "evil eye". Likewise the frank and uninhibited language which was used to counter the power of an evil-doer did not originally have the connotation of overt vulgarity."   

 

  Because the Pompeians believed Priapus or Fascinum was a  very powerful God the phallic symbol appeared  in abundance  and in  gigantic forms on  wall paintings, statues, or household objects such as  oil lamps, statuettes, drinking bowls and even on legs of tables. The phallic symbol also  often appeared in relief  on the external walls of houses and temples "to ward off the evil eye".  

 

  To  Pompeians,  intercourse was a natural  and pleasant  biological activity. They knew how to do it very well. There was no vulgarity or taboo about it. Therefore, people in their everyday communication made the sign of "keeping my fingers crossed" -- symbolizing  the act of intercourse -- "to ward off the evil eye".   Such sexual symbolism was protective -not sexual,  as used by  Americans today.  

 

  "Keeping the fingers crossed"

  Unfortunately most people today do not know and do not care that our daily behavior is impregnated with mythological symbols of power.(8)    The crossing of our fingers -- placing the index parallel and over the middle finger --  is a mythological gesture to ward off danger or "the evil eye".  

 

  Why do we gesture thumbs up?  In sports, politics and  other daily activities, expressing our best wishes for victory. Today we see on television, pilots in  the  Gulf  War,  and other wars,  making the thumbs up gesture to express victory. The Romans also expressed  their choices for  each gladiator: thumbs up or thumbs down.  

 

The Latin nationalities  cross their  fingers differently. The Portuguese, Italian, and  Spanish, make a fica, (from Latin ficus = fig), figa  or fig gesture. They place the thumb between the index and the middle finger. They feel this is a stronger gesture "to ward off the evil eye" because it depicts a sexual  intercourse  more closely.  Even today the fica, figa  or fig is an amulet or talisman which  is hung on necklace and used by  children  (and adults)  "to ward off the evil eye." 

                                         Click on photo for larger view  

                                     

                                            

 

Pope Pius XII making the blessing gesture with the Colon Sign  

 

  In America when we make the gesture of "giving the finger  to someone" -- extending the middle finger and flexing the index and the third finger  --  it is understood that we want to attack or " give the shaft"  to someone.   

 

  Its original meaning was just the opposite: "giving the finger" was a protective gesture, protecting the person who made  it from "the evil eye of the other person." The "manguito" gesture --flexing the forearm over the arm after placing the opposite hand on the flexure  -- is another phallic gesture. Today this movement is taken to be an obscene gesture. However in  ancient times it was  for a phallic symbol  used to protect the gesticulator,  from "the evil eye".

  The Roman Republic, and later Mussolini's Fascist government used the Fasces (from Fascinum) as  a  symbol of strength, authority and  power.

                                                        Click on photo for larger view  

                                                        

(1)   The Roman Fasces or Colon - a bundle of birch rods bound together by a red strap.  (2) and (3) are the American and British Fasces or Colons,  in both Houses  

 

  Fasces consist of a bundle of birch or elm rods bound together by a red strap.  We find this symbol on both sides of the chair of the Lincoln Monument and also on the back of some American dimes.  The fasces or phallic symbol is displayed also on the sides of the rostrum of the House of Representatives -- as symbol of force and authority.

  If we take a close look at the eagle on the seal of a dollar bill, (on the right side),  we see,   the fasces or bundle of  arrows held in the eagle's talon representing  power and  authority. On the left side of the dollar bill we see the pyramid with a radiating eye at the vertex.  It is a powerful eye "warding off the evil eye" so the United States of America  would be protected  from any bad omen!  

 

                                             Click on photo for larger view

 

                                         

                                    Washington Monument.

      The shaft or colon has a height of 555 feet and 898 steps to the top.  

 

  The obelisks as symbols  of power

  Symbols of Priapus, Fascinum or Phallus  have existed from very ancient times. From  Egypt,  through the Roman Empire, obelisks were erected as an expression of power, authority and victory. Throughout the centuries artists, architects and poets  have express their knowledge of the phallic symbols -- symbols of defiance, power and patriotism --  in  such a subtle way that the general public has not been  aware of  its origin and meaning!  Practically every big city in the world has an obelisk and is proud of it. We find them in  St. Peter's Square, Vatican, the  Trojan Column, Rome, Italy ; in Concord Square, and the Eiffel Tower, in Paris;   and the  Washington Monument  (obelisk) in Washington, D. C.  These tall and huge monuments serve to show the patriotism, potency and the glorious history of each nation! 

                                           Click on photos for larger view

                                        

Lincoln Statue with Fasces or Colons on both sides of the chair. Lincoln Memorial

                                 

                                               

                          George Washington leaning on a large Fasces or Colon.

                            Was our first President Fascist?  

 


               

  The anatomical and Biological Meaning of Colon
Click on photo for larger view  

                                              

                                          Intestinal Colon

  Being a practicing physician for more than forty years, I had many occasions to observed the fact that in medicine we use every day many medical terms composed by the word colon. I also noticed that  the  anatomical  and original  meanings  of colon as  member, limb, parts and phallus  were perfect anatomical  descriptions  of parts of the human body! The large bowel was divided in parts or colons called:  ascendant colon, transverse colon, descendent colon and sigmoid colon. (2)

  To confirm  the medical meaning of colon let us review Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary   (25th edition) which  lists 40 medical terms composed by the word colon:

  (1) Ascending colon, (2) Biliary colic, (3) Colic , (4) Colitis, (5) Colocentesis , 6)Colodyspesia, (7) Colonalgia, (8) Colonic , (9) Colonopathy, (10) Colonorrhagia, (11) Colonorrhea, (12) Colonoscope, (13) Colonoscopy, (14) Colopathy, (15) Colopexotomy, (16) Colopexy,(17) Coloplication,(18) Coloprotectomy ,(19) Coloproctitis,(20) Coloproctostomy ,(21) Coloptosis,(22) Colopuncture ,(23) Colorectal, (24) Colorectitis, (25) Colorectostomy, (26) Colorectum, (27) Colorrhaphy, (28) Colorrhea,(29) Colosigmoidoscopy, (30) Colostomy, (31) Colotomy, (32) Descending colon, (33) Irritable colon, (34) Left colon , (35) Lead-pipe colon, ( 36) Megacolon , (37) Right colon, (38) Sigmoid colon, (39) Spastic colon, 40) Transverse colon.  

 

                          Genital Colon

  Anatomical --  Colon also means: limb,  member, parts, phallus.

  Based on my long medical practice, my investigation went further. Because people -- the voice of the people--  refer to the  external genitalia as "my private parts",   I pursued my investigation deeper  to search out the popular meaning, or the colloquial words  -- vox populi -- used by common people in reference to the genitalia, masculine and feminine. After reviewing  the vulgar words used daily by the Greeks, Spanish and Portuguese,  I was amazed to  find out  that  all the so called "bad words" had the same etymological root: Colon!  Since then I have verified that practically all European languages  used genitalia vulgar words derived also from the powerful  word colon.  

 

Click on photo for larger view

 

Showing his "private parts or colones"

"David", by Michelangelo, Academia, in Florence, Italy. Taken by me, in 1994  

 

To better understand the meaning of the genital colon we should examine Michelangelo's immortal statue of "David" now on display at the Academy in Florence, Italy. The statue of "David" depicts clearly besides the higher and lower members (limbs), the male genital parts: the phallus or penis and the testicles.

Male testicles are the one part of human anatomy that has exerted the most influence on legal, religious and social development throughout history. We know that the father's last name determines the family name. Universally a son is preferred in order to perpetuate the family name. In ancient Judea and Greece the testicles represented a man's virility and was also the symbol of strength, respect and honor.  

 

                          The tremendous power of Colon

  The word testament   in Old Testament and New Testament is derived  from testes  which also means witness. Today we may attend testimonial dinners, but we should recall that the word testimonial   is also derived from testes. When we are called to testify in court as a witness or testemunha, these words are also derived from testes. And when we swear to tell the truth  (testify) we do so based on the symbolic honor accorded the testes. 

  How does the  meaning of the word colon  relate to us today? We simply listen to the language of the common people, the vox populi, to verify that today  colon  still has  a vibrant life in our daily language, despite the span  of centuries from the Greek to today's modern language.

How many times do we refer to our genitals as our  private parts?  How many times do we call the penis our  private member? Females are more specific when they relate to their physicians, "I have a problem in my private parts."   Men  more often go to the root meaning of colon  when in Spain they call the testicles colones or cojones.  In Portugal the people call the testicles colhões!  

  The Romans referred to the female orifice as vagina, meaning the sheath in which the dagger is inserted. In Greece today people use the word kuleus, but in Spain the word for vagina is coño,    and in Portugal, cona,   all derived from colon!    Is the  four letter word "cunt"  derived  from the root colon?  Is the four letter word cock derived from colon?

 The Greeks referred to arse (buttocks)  as kolos  derived from colon   and the Spanish referred to arse (buttocks) as culonas   and anus as culo.  The Portuguese further simplify the word by using cu.   The Portuguese word calão  which is  slang  is also derived from colon.  It implies that slang is used by people of low social status, that is, people whose private parts are "dirty and foul".

  There still exists a lot of hypocrisy  in America  concerning the so called "four letter words" or foul language. The Webster's Unabridged International Dictionary, with more than half a million words, up until the Third Edition published in 1954 did not included the word shit.  This edition has two entries with seven different meanings. The people,  the voice of the people, has to use certain words many generations before the lexicographers place them in the dictionary....The moral of the story is that up until 1954 the American people did not defecate!..

  What is the origin of protocol? Protos, (Greek)=first,  plus colon=part, therefore, the first part, or introduction.  And the origin of  Colofon (colon=part + fon =fin or end)? It is the final part of a book.   

                                Sigmund Freud

  Researching and finding  the three meanings of Colon -- (1) punctuation , (2)  phallic and (3) mythological -- made me recall the course of Psychology I took as a premedical student at New York University -Washington Square College --during the September 1950 semester.(9)   More than forty years ago, I was exposed to Sigmund Freud's sexual theories and his analyses in the development of human personality.  I remember very well Freud's  principal  stages  on the development of personality in children: (1) auto-erotic, (2) oral-erotic, (3) anal-erotic, and (4) genital or phallic stage. 

  Every man has to go through all these phases of development, furthermore,  each man -- thousands of years ago and today -- has  to observe himself his muscular growth, and his  overall strength has to be  related to his phallic power.  

  For centuries the phallic symbol in man has been like a  barometer (erection) by which he  sees and  measures  his health,  his power of procreation and even his potency within the society in which he lives as a father and as a leader.  

                                  Click on photo for larger view

                                              

"Hic Habitat Felicitas" = "Here Dwells Happiness", with the Phallic symbol on the wall of the house "to ward off the evil eyed". (From Eros in Pompeii, page 109).  

Today we see signs "God Bless this home" and statues of Our Lady of Fatima, Saint Anthony, in front of the houses with the same purpose of "protecting the homes from the evil eye".  

  If today it seems strange to understand why the ancient peoples placed so much value and emphasis on the phallic power, we should place ourselves in their era.  Then we can better acknowledge that their phallic observations, and creed were indeed  logical ones. 

  I was gratified in discovering the mythological power of the phallic symbol. With this knowledge the genital and sexual meaning of the phallic symbol is not interpreted as lusty.  

 This comprehensive study and research is being presented  with a  medical and historical purpose. It has not been stimulated by sexuality  or  vulgarity. My main objective is to find the truth and present my findings  to the general public,  so  that my research data can be refuted or accepted. As a  senior citizen  and after  practicing medicine for more than four decades I feel like the aged poet Sophocles,  when Socrates asked  him this question:

  "How does love suit with age, Sophocles -- are you still the man you were?

Peace, he replied; most gladly have I escaped the thing you speak; I feel as if I had escaped from a mad and furious master. " (1)

Saint Peter,  in St. Peter's Cathedral, in Rome,making the gesture 
of blessing with the Colon Sign
Click on photo for larger view

 

  Do you have a dime? Take a look at it. You will verify that the Olympic Torch  on it is a Colon sign!

  Do you have a photo of the Statue of Liberty at home?  Take a look at her right hand and you will see  that the torch she is holding high  with the Beam of Liberty  is  a Colon!   

 


 

Conclusions:  

The discovery of the mythological power on both extremities of the navigator's Sigla helps us understand much better why on the first two Papal Bulls by Alexander VI the navigator's name is Cristofõm Colon and not Columbus.  

 

 (1) With the information described above, we should conclude by

 quickly reviewing, once again, the Sigla of Cristóvão Colon, and

 appreciate fully the religious and mythological powers of the pen

 name, or pseudonym,  of the most world famous navigator.  

 

           Navigator's  Sigla  

                 Click on photo for larger view  

                                                    

                                             Colon      Cristóvão     Colon

(2) The discovery of the mythological power on both extremities of the navigator's Sigla helps us understand much better why, on the first two Papal Bulls by Alexander VI, the navigator's name is Cristofõm Colon and not Columbus.

(3) We salute the Great Navigator for his choice of such a unique, intelligent and descriptive name!

Finally, after five centuries, the baffling mystery of his Sigla has been unraveled!  

(4) It is interesting to note that the name Colon,  with such a strong and omnipotent meaning, was the name chosen by the great discover of the Americas.  


 

Bibliography

  (1) "All Pompeii".  By Giovanna Magi, Published by Bonechi Editore, Firenze, 5 Via dei Rustici.  

(2) "Columbus was 100% Portuguese" by Manuel Luciano da Silva, Bristol, R. I. 02809, U. S. A.  First edition published  in  January 1989.  

  (3) "Columbus wasn't Columbus"  by Manuel Luciano da Silva. "Massachusetts Maritime Magazine", Fall-Winter 1989-90, Vol. III, No. 2

  (4)  "Eros in Pompeii" -- The Secrets Rooms of the National Museum of Naples  By Michael Grant with photographs by Antonia Mulas. Published by Bonanza Books, distributed by Crown Publishers. First Edition 1982. This is a masterpiece of a book on Pompeii.

  (5) "Mythology" By  James Weigel, Jr. Published by Cliffs Notes, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1973. Page 138.

  (6) "National Geographic Magazine". November, 1962. "Last Moments of the Pompeians" by Amadeo Maiuri and Lee E. Battaglia. Pages 651-669.

  (7) "Sex in History"  By Reay Tannahill. Published by Stien and Day / Publishers, Scarborough House, Briarckliff Manor, N. Y. 10510, 1980.

  (8)"The Power of Myth"  Joseph Campbell with Bill Moyers. Page XIV.

 Betty Due Flowers, Editor. Doubleday New York. 1988.

  (9) "The Psychology of Abnormal Behavior", by Louis P. Thorpe.  Chapter 32. The  Ronald Press company. New York.

  (10) "The Republic" by Plato, Great Book of the Western World, Robert Maynard Hutchins, Editor, Vol. 7,  page 296. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. Chicago

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