Are  the Wampanoag Indians “Mental Deficients”?

By Manuel Luciano da Silva, Medical Doctor

In 1963,  I was classified, officially, in the United States as a “Mental deficient”. I never forgot this terrible offense!

Before I was born in the north part of Continental Portugal, on September 5th, 1926,  my father was already an American Citizen. Therefore when I arrived  in New York City, on January 26, 1946,  I  came in  with two passports: Portuguese and American.

Forty four days after I arrived in  Brooklyn,  I was called by the American Armed Forces to be examined  for the induction service.  I passed the physical exam, but I flunked the written exam because at that time I did NOT know English.  My drafted card was then stamped with these letters: 4FMD meaning that I was a “Mental Deficient” because I did not know the English language!  Ten years latter I changed MD – “Mental Deficient” --  to MD meaning Medical Doctor. Not too bad for a mental deficient!....

This dramatic episode that happened to me 63 years is a true example of the Anglo-Saxon superiority that, unfortunately,  still exist today in  USA!

Let me explain what  happens today when I give my lectures about Dighton Rock  and I explain the influence of the Portuguese language into the Wampanoag  Indians.

When I demonstrate  with  color slides the epigraphic inscriptions of Dighton Rock no one  questions the validity of  the Portuguese theory.  Fine!

The questions come up concerning the influence of the Portuguese words that appear on the Dictionaries  of the Wampanoag Indians.  Such statements as this one are made:  “I do not agree with the influence of the Portuguese in the Wampanoag vocabulary”.  When we are dealing with science, you do not disagree. YOU REFUTE by presenting scientific evidence as COUNTERPROOF!  Just saying that you do not  agree, means NOTHING!

Any one that wants to refute our research as to know very well the  Portuguese language.  Otherwise challenging  our research – without knowing Portuguese -- is  as  “Mental Deficient  in Portuguese“ as I was 63 years ago,  when I was classified a “Mental deficient “   because I did not know English!!!

When my wife and I examined the American Indian dictionaries in 1960 - during many  successive days -  at the Boston Public Library --  we did NOT change anything in those  dictionaries. We did not commit any forgery changing any of the words of  the Wampanoag Indian Language. We examined the words the way they are  printed on the dictionaries.  We simply examined those words from the Portuguese point of view. I,  as a Medical Doctor, graduated from the Coimbra Medical School in Portugal,  and my wife,  as a School Teacher, graduated in Portugal. We both know  the Portuguese language very well!

If any one wants to challenge our findings HAS to learn Portuguese very well. Has to go to Portugal and live there for awhile.

Then come back to America and review the American Indian dictionaries, as we did,  otherwise you will be taken an attitude based on the Anglo-Saxon superiority, and this technique is not valid ANY MORE!  

Here is the chapter of our new Book  entitled “Christopher Columbus was Portuguese!” dealing with the influence of the Portuguese language in the Wampanoag Indians:

 

                                            Chapter - 31

               The White American Indians of New England!

Where is New England in relation to Continental Portugal? It is locate directly across the Province of Minho in northern part of Portugal and the Province of Algarve in the south.

It was Alfred Wegener, a German meteorologist, who in his 1915 book "The Origin of the Continents and Ocean" revealed the discovery of the separation of the continents. Therefore 200 million years ago, New England was attached to the coast of Portugal.  Because Wegener was a meteorologist, the geologists of the world considered him 'an amateur geologist' and only in 1960 at an International Congress of Geology was there general agreement that Wegener was correct! Ecological studies from both coasts and even the DNA of snails from the Iberian Peninsula and New England reveal they have the same origin! Today, the North American tectonic plate continues to run away from Europe about five inches per year! Watch out California!

Because Portuguese sailors were the first to discover and colonize New England, they first named it "Nova Lusitania" which means 'New Portugal'. But the Portuguese sailors also had social intercourse with the American Indians of North America. Gilberto Freire, a Brazilian sociologist, said many years ago: "God created the White and the Negro and the Portuguese made the Mulatto." It is true that of all the European colonizers the Portuguese most intimately mixed with the natives. They left among the new peoples that they encountered their mark, including their Portuguese language. And we are certain that future genetic studies will prove the presence of their Portuguese genome in many parts of the world! Portuguese International Language Before we analyze the linguistic influence on the Indians of New England, we should give a panoramic review of the linguistic marks left by the Portuguese in Africa, Asia, Brazil and Canada. The most powerful influence left by any colonizer is his language. Languages resist the "washing out" of generations, especially of words that describe new objects for the native inhabitants. This is what happened in Brazil with more than 180 million inhabitants and also with the people of Cape Verde, Angola, Sao Tome e Principe, Mozambique, Macau and East Timor, which make up a total of 220 million Portuguese speakers. But 500 years ago, Portuguese was the lingua franca, an international language and because of that, even today, 53 Asiatic languages use Portuguese words: India, Sri-Lanka, Vietnam, Indonesia, Burma, Formosa, Philippines, Koreas, Japan, etc. In Japan today, more than 500 hundred Portuguese words are included in their vocabulary! Here are some examples of Portuguese words used by the Japanese:

 

japanese

 

portuguese

 

english

 

Abito

 

Habito

 

Habit

 

Amen

 

Amen

 

Amen

 

Amende

 

Amendoa

 

Almond

 

Anjo

 

Anjo

 

Angel

 

Banku

 

Banco

 

Bench

 

Baputesuma

 

Baptismo

 

Baptism

 

Barson

 

Balsamo

 

Bal

 

Bateren

 

Padre

 

Priest

 

Biidro

 

Vidro

 

Glass

 

Birodo

 

Veludo

 

Velvet

 

Bisukoto

 

Biscoito

 

Biscuit

 

Boru

 

Bolo

 

Loaf

 

Butan

 

Butão

 

Button

 

Confeto

 

Confeito

 

Sug. cov. almond

 

Ekirinji

 

Igreja

 

Church

 

Furasuko

 

Frasco

 

Flask

 

Gomu

 

Goma

 

Gum

 

Inferno

 

Inferno

 

Hell

 

Iruman

 

Irmão

 

Brother

 

Jaketsu

 

Jaqueta

 

Jacket

 

Jejun

 

Jejum

 

Fasting

 

Jiban

 

Jibao

 

Undershirt

 

Kapitan

 

Capitão

 

Captain

 

 

Kappa

 

Capa

 

Cape

 

Karusan

 

Cruz

 

Cross

 

Kurusu

 

Calc.ao

 

Pants (shorts)

 

Karuta

 

Carta

 

Letter

 

Kataru

 

Catarro

 

Catarrh

 

Katoriku

 

Catolico

 

Catholic

 

Kirishtan

 

Cristao

 

Christian

 

Kirismo

 

Crisma

 

Confirmation

 

Kohisan

 

Confissao

 

Confession

 

Kompasu

 

Compasso

 

Compass

 

Kompra

 

Compra

 

Buy

 

Kontasu

 

Contas

 

Beads of Rosary

 

Koppu

 

Copo

 

Cup

 

Koreijo

 

Colegio

 

College

 

Manteka

 

Manteiga

 

Butter

 

Manto

 

Manto

 

Mantle

 

Maruchiru

 

Martir

 

Martyr

 

Orashyo

 

Orac,ao

 

Praying

 

Ostiya

 

Hostia

 

Host

 

Pan

 

Pao

 

Bread

 

Pappu

 

Papas

 

Popes

 

Paraizo

 

Paraizo

 

Paradise

 

Pisturu

 

Pistola

 

Pistol

 

Sabon

 

Sabao

 

Soap

 

Seito

 

Santo

 

Saint

 

Sinnyoro

 

Senhor

 

Mister

 

Tabako

 

Tabaco

 

Tobacco

 

Tiafu

 

Tufao

 

Typhoon

 

Tanto

 

Tanto

 

A great deal

 

 

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach Japan. Fernando Mendes Pinto, Cristovao Borralho, Diogo Zaimoto, and Antonio da Mota all taught the Japanese the use of gun powder in the arquebus (1542). Later, the Portuguese founded the city of Nagasaki as a commercial center where they introduced tobacco by growing it on the hill sides of the city. At the same time, they converted many of the Japanese to the Catholic religion and constructed many churches.

Most significant of all, many Portuguese words indicating objects and religious terms foreign to the Japanese were so strongly assimilated that even today the Japanese language contains 90 Portuguese-derived religious words. We should note that some of the Portuguese-Japanese words are seldom used today but others are part of everyday conversation throughout modern Japan.

We should not forget "Origato", meaning "Thanks", from the Portuguese "obrigado".

Portuguese Canadian

Now let us examine the Portuguese words in early Canada:

 

Thirty years before the Corte Real theory was conceived, Reverend George Patterson, D. D. wrote a monograph entitled "The Portuguese on the North-East Coast of America, and the first European attempt at Colonization There. A Lost Chapter in American History," (1890). Reverend Patterson presented a list of 52 place names of Portuguese origin along the coast of Canada. He based his study on the revision of place names in early maps made by various cartographers, selecting only those names that had either continued in use to that date (1890) or had been employed for long periods in earlier times. For example, the word Kanata is an Indian word derived from "Canada", a Portuguese word used in the 15th century to denote a narrow pathway. This was the name given to the St. Lawrence River by the Portuguese navigators during their search for the Northwest Passage to India. In Newfoundland, there is a narrow bay, known as Canada Bay, a narrow harbor called Canada Harbor with a cape at its entrance named Canada Head. Bacallaus, another word once thought to be Indian, is Portuguese for codfish. Even today in Portugal, Newfoundland is referred to as the land of Bacalhaus as it was named on many early maps by different cartographers.

 

Portuguese and the American Indian of New England

We understand that wherever the Portuguese went they left the mark of their language in Africa, South America, Asia, Far East and even  in early Canada. Let us find out if they did the same thing in New England among the Wampanoag Indians. Fair question? Wampanoag Indians

In the first dictionary of the language of the New England Indians, compiled by Roger Williams (1643), in Providence, RI, and entitled "Key Into The Language of America", we can verify that the name Wampanoag meant "white people" in English. Wompi ( = white) combines with nanoag (people or men) to form Wampanoag. Another example is the word wampum which refers to white shell money used by the Wampanoags. Roger Williams noted that the Wampanoags "themselves are tawnie, by the Sunne and their annoyntings, yet they are borne white". Along with his Pilgrim contemporaries, he also remarked on the unusual friendliness of the Wampanoag Indians. For example, Massasoit, the Chief of the Wampanoags, was given the epithet of "good chief" by the Pilgrims whom he protected. The descriptions given of "white and friendly (Wampanoag) Indians" by Roger Williams, and other Pilgrim writers, constitute enough anthropological evidence to merit our analysis of the genetics and the linguistics of the Wampanoag Tribe.

The nine years between the arrival of Corte Real and his crew in New England (1502) and the date on Dighton Rock (1511) is sufficiently long for the Portuguese to have lived intimately with these natives. Motivated by a sense of brotherhood or, perhaps, simple promiscuity, the Portuguese mixed with the natives, imparting their language and physical characteristics. White Indians

The apparent skin color of a person is determined by three components: carotene, oxyhemoglobin, and melanin. It is melanin, however, which constitutes the true pigment of the skin. The variation in the amount of melanin produces skin shades from white to black. In the interbreeding of black and white races, half of the genes (black producing more pigment), and the other half (white genes producing less pigment), always blend together. It has been verified that the genetic mixing of pure Negroes with pure Caucasians always produces, in the first generation, Mulattoes of intermediate skin color. Dobzhansky's diagram (Theodosius Dobzhansky from Yale University) shows clearly that in the first generation, the pigment genes are equally represented — (half white and half black) — producing always a Mulatto. While in the first generation the white and black genes are equally represented and later generations show a greater variability in the combinations of these genes. Thus, the skin color of subsequent generations can extend from extremely dark or pure black to extremely fair or pure white.

Re-examining Dobzhansky's diagram, we can better visualize the genetic mosaic of skin tones for the third or fourth generation with its greater genetic variability.

The interbreeding of an American Indian with a pure white produces a specific type of mulatto called Mestizo or half breed. Anthropological studies done in North, Central, and South America are in agreement that the genetic distribution of the pigment genes in the Mesti9O is the same as that of the mulatto, but extending over a Re-examining Dobzhansky's diagram, we can better visualize the genetic mosaic of skin tones for the third or fourth generation with its greater genetic variability.

The interbreeding of an American Indian with a pure white produces a specific type of mulatto called Mestizo or half breed. Anthropological studies done in North, Central, and South America are in agreement that the genetic distribution of the pigment genes in the Mesti9O is the same as that of the mulatto, but extending over a range of lighter skin colors. Re-examining Dobzhansky's diagram, we can better visualize the genetic mosaic of skin tones for the third or fourth generation with its greater genetic variability.

The interbreeding of an American Indian with a pure white produces a specific type of mulatto called Mestizo or half breed. Anthropological studies done in North, Central, and South America are in agreement that the genetic distribution of the pigment genes in the Mesti9O is the same as that of the mulatto, but extending over a range of lighter skin colors.

 

It has also been observed that the Indian Mestizo of the first generation is taller than the full-blooded parents. Pure American Indians have a larger and rounder face than the Caucasians. However, American Indian hybrids of the first generation were found to have faces of a smaller size and narrower form, approaching the characteristics of the white parent.

Dr. Lawrence Angel, Curator of the Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution, wrote: "One further point of interest is that American Indians, especially the Eastern Woodland variants, were much less different from Europeans in size and other measurements than are most Mongoloid or proto-Mongoloid groups." When the Pilgrims and Roger Williams described the whiteness of the Wampanoag Indians, they were observing Mestizos of the fourth generation because the average life span was approximately thirty years for the aborigines of that period. It is not difficult to accept the theory that the Wampanoag Indians had genetic contact with white men, if we consider the reports of their friendly behavior and fairness of skin.

Roger Williams' pronouncement has much significance: "Some of these Indians are White!" If the Wampanoag Indians had indeed genetic and cultural intercourse with white men, we would expect that, besides the imprint of civilized manners and light skin color, the language of the newly arrived race must also have been assimilated by the aborigines.

If our interpretation is correct, and the white men in question were Miguel Corte Real and his crew, we should be able to find proper and place names of Portuguese origin in the Wampanoag language. Reviewing the Portuguese in the Wampanoag Now that we have traveled around the world and verified the influence of the Portuguese language on so many and diversified peoples, it is time to review the language of the New England Indians and sort out the place and proper names of Portuguese origin. We should note that the Indians of eastern Canada were part of the Algonquin Nation, which included all the Indian tribes of New England and the coastal tribes extending to Virginia. It is also necessary to recall that from the time of Miguel Corte Real (1502) to the landing of the Pilgrims.

During the time of the great explorations, several names were bywords to the Portuguese navigators. Tomar was (and still is) the name of the city that housed the headquarters of the Order of Christ, where all the navigators received their religious training. When the Pilgrims arrived in America, they discovered the following Indian names: Tomah River, Tomah Brook, and Tomah Lake (the H is sounded). Tagus is the name of the river running through Lisbon from which all the sea expeditions departed. From the Indians, the Pilgrims heard of the Togus River and Togus Lake.

Sagres was the name of the ocean promontory where Prince Henry housed his School of Navigation. Saugus, an Indian name, is a town north of Boston. And three miles west of Dighton Rock, there is a locale named Sagues. In addition to its phonetic similarity to Sagres, it meant in Indian "wet by overflow", which is somewhat descriptive of Sagres, where the Promontory is always wet by the splashing of the waves.

Some of these words illustrate by themselves the epic of the Portuguese discoveries from one extreme of the globe to the other. For example, the word Catana means "big knife". It is used in Portugal and its former overseas provinces, Brazil, Japan and was used by American Indians of New England.

Mount Hope (Bristol, R. I.), the highest point in Narragansett Bay, is a name derived from the Indian word Montaup, meaning "lookout place". In Portuguese, Mont'alto, meaning a "high mount", is pronounced very similarly to montaup.

We have seen that the Portuguese missionaries gave the religious word Amen to the Japanese people. Thus, we have Amenquina as the name of an Indian chief.

The Japanese were not acquainted with bread until the Portuguese arrived. This is the reason why in Japan today they still use the Portuguese word for bread: Pan (Pdo), in modern Portuguese). But the word Pano (Indian) in the Catholic mass had a religious significance. Another Indian chief was named Panoquina (Pano + Quina). The word Hosana, meaning "Glory to the King", is also used in the Catholic mass. This is the origin of the name Osanaquina. The Indians also called their God Okeus, which is derived from the Portuguese "0 Deus", meaning "God".

One of the outcomes of the Portuguese discoveries was the spreading of the Christian faith. And the foregoing linguistic analysis indicates that Miguel Corte Real attempted to Christianize the Indians.

Portuguese Fado:

Fado, meaning "fate" is a type of Portuguese national folk song. It is usually dramatic and melancholic.

The Portuguese attempt to colonize New England is indeed a "lost chapter in American History". While the Portuguese colonizers have shared the "fate" of the Indians, their words echo again. And when a Nova Scotian poet lamented the passing of the red man, he may well have sung a Fado for the Portuguese Indian:

"The memory of the red man,

How can it pass away,

When its names of music linger,

On each mount, and stream and bay!”