Columbus was 100% Portuguese
also at the end of this article the letter
The American scholars continue to be brainwashed by the false name Columbus!Columbus means pigeon, but the navigator was no pigeon In the United States there is an economic conspiracy to continue with the name Columbus because of the many printed books, videos and other paraphernalia worthy in sales many millions of dollars!
Like in so many fields of endeavor the TRUTH will come to the surface and eventually will triumph!!
The many thousand of books and articles written about Christopher Columbus emphasize:
(a) the mysterious and emotional aspects of this great navigator,
(b) how many women there were in his life,
(c) and the various places where his bones may be buried.
I discard all his circumstantial information because it has no direct bearing on the correct and precise diagnosis of the true identity of the Navigator.
I am interested in analyzing Columbus biopsies:
the ciphers written by the Navigators own hand,
as well as certain relevant documents residing in the Library of the Vatican.
For centuries, the largest and most important library in the western world has been the Library of the Vatican, still today the largest in the world. Logic dictates that anyone researching the history of exploration and discovery should go to the archives of this famous library.
Two Papal Bulls of Alexander VI
His Sigla or Signature
Forty Portuguese names in the Caribbean
His Coat of Arms
Click on photo for larger view Pope Alexander VI who published the four Papal Bulls in 1493, archived in the in the Vatican Library, attesting to the first voyage of the navigator Cristofõm Colon (Columbus) to the New World, in 1492.
Click on photo for larger view The Vatican City, the smallest country in the world, has the largest library in the world. As you look at this panoramic photo, the Vatican Library is behind the tall building that we see on the right, where the Papal Bulls are archived.
centuries ago, the Pope was considered the highest, most official, and most
powerful authority in the European world. He was the referee
who approved the division of the New World between Portugal and Spain
sanctioning the Treaty of Tordesilles, June 7,
Four Papal Bulls were issued by Pope Alexander VI in the year 1493, all of them in Latin, relating to the discovery of America. I discovered them on February 21, 1992. Only the first two Papal Bulls included the name of the Navigator, but the name that appears in not Columbus, butColon.
on photo for larger view On the First Papal BullMay 3rd,
1493 -- on second page, on line
eleventh, the name of Crhistofom Colon appears.
In the Bull of May 3, 1493, on the second page, line eleven, we read in the Latin, -- dilectum filium Crhistophom Colonmy beloved son Crhistofom Colon. Note that the name is Colon, not Columbus. We shall explain why below.
Click on photo for larger view On the Second Papal BullMay 4th, 1493 -- on the first page, line 31, the name Cristofõm Colon can be seen.
The second Papal Bull, issued by Alexander VI and dated the following day, May 4, 1493, repeats the name Colon. On the first page, line thirty-one, we can read the Navigators name written in Portuguese: Cristofõm Colon.
The name that appears on the Second Bull is Cristofõm Colon, as written in Portuguese. We should note that the name Cristo does not have the letter h and that there is a tilde over the letter õ. No other language in the world uses a tilde over õ except Portuguese.
The entire text of the First and Second Bulls are written in Latin. We would expect the name of the Navigator to appear in Latin as Christopher. But it does not!
We might also expect the name to be spelled out in ItalianCristoforo Colombobecause the Bulls were published in Rome. But it is not!
It could be in SpanishCristóval Colonbecause the Bull were addressed to the Spanish Kings. But it isnot! In Spain, and in all Spanish-speaking nations, the name of the Navigator has always been Christóval Colon. This is the same form in which his name appears on the cover of his Book of Priviliges,1502, the only book reviewed by the Navigator himself, before he died in 1505.
on photo for larger view Name on the cover of the BOOK OF PRIVILEGES
is the bookdescribing his rights and propertiesreviewed
by the navigator when he was alive.
Note the name Colon, not Columbus.
HIS SIGLA with which he
signed his documents and letters
What do you have to know to be able to decipher the Sigla?We have to know the fundamentals of the alphabet (álfa +bêta, first and second letters of the Greek alphabet) and the punctuation signs or symbols.
The Phoenicians, where Lebanon is today, invented the Consonants. The Greeks discovered the Vowels. It was Pythagoras, the famous Greek mathematician, who invented the Period [ . ] the Comma [ , ] the Colon [ : ] and the Semicolon [ ; or . / ]
You will be amazed how easy it will be for you to decipher the Sigla just because you are aware of the Greek signs of punctuation. OK, let us tackle the problem.
The word Sigla is plural of the Latin siglum, which means signal (or signature). A sigla always has a secret meaning, making it difficult to interpret. Yet our world is load with siglas. A sigla is sometimes formed by the initial letters of various words and is then called an acronym. The best known example of a sigla is INRI on the top of the cross, meaning Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaerorumjesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews.
upper part has seven letters SSAS XMY.
The letter X means cross breed , hence son of and because the letter
J did not exist in the Roman alphabet five centuries ago, the Greek Y was used
for the initial letter of the name Joseph.
With this information, the top part of the sigla, which is a salutation
to Christ, is read as Sanctus Sanctus Altissimus Santus
Son of Mary and Joseph.
Click on photo for larger view
For better analysis we will divided it into two parts: top and bottom
The top has 7 letters, plus periods
The bottom has : Colon, plus 9 letters, plus semicolon . /
Sanctus. Altissimus . Sanctus.
Son of Mary and Joseph
The repetition of periods implies repetition of the word Sanctus,
X is crossing to mean son
for Joseph because five centuries ago the letter J did not exist in the
bottom part of the Navigators sigla is composed of [ :
XpõFERENS . / ].
of this part reveals the following:Click
on photo for larger view
1. [ : ] , a colon, is the Greek sign of punctuation that means member or part. Indeed, when we use a colon in punctuation, it divides or separates the sentence into parts or members. But also it means to "ward off the evil eye".
4 [ . / ] is the Greek semicolon. But five
centuries ago was only called colon.
colon and semicolon? Five centuries ago in Portugal and Spain, colon and
semicolon were both called colons, or separators of sentences. The colon [
: ] was called the perfect colon and the semicolon [ ;
or . / ] was called the
imperfect colon, or just colon.
many centuries in Portugal and Spain (and until very recently in France also),
an interrogatory sentence was always signaled at its beginning with an inverted
question mark, alerting the reader to the nature of the sentence, which ended
with an upright question mark [ ? ].
same rule was applied to exclamation marks and
colons and semicolons. When a sentence started with a colon, the reader knew
that it would end with a semicolon, and vice versa: but only one of these
punctuation marks would affect the meaning of the sentence, as happens with the
: XpõFERENS . / ]
equal to colon + Cristó + vão + semicolon
or just colon
which is equal to Cristovão Colon.
first colon serves as the alert sign to the reader that the second
colon (semicolon) is coming and therefore is read as Colon .
Cristóvão Colon was the trade name of the discoverer.
His natural name was Salvador Fernandes Zarco.
should know that Christians commonly called
Christ the Savior. Savior
in Portuguese and Spanish is Salvador. The letters
põ of Xpõ are small
letters. Why? Because the name Salvador
is the name of a person and does not
stand for Christ or God, otherwise, all letters would have been
addition to its meaning as messenger, FERENS has an encoded meaning. It is the
abbreviation of the name Fernandes in
far, we have two names, Salvador Fernandes. Where in the sigla is the last name
another look at FERENS, we note
the final S differs from the Ss
in the upper part of the siglaits upper extremity is
raised. Although similar to an upper case S, it
is not an S. Rather, it is the inverted Hebrew
letter called a Lamed.
on photo for larger view In
its normal, upright position, this letter Lamed
has the same meaning as the Greek word Colon
[ : ] or [ . / ] meaning member or parts.
But there is a rule in Hebrew
alphabet that when a letter is upside down or inverted, it alters the meaning of what
follows: It looks like, but it is not. It is the
other one. And the other meaning of [ . /
], Colon, in Greek, should be read as the
meaning in Hebrew of the inverted Lamed, which
is the name Zarco.
is equal to Zarco in Hebrew.
This sensational discovery
was made by Major Santos Ferreira, in Portugal, in 1930.
The conclusion is that the sigla contains two secret names: Cristovão Colon, his trade name, and Salvador Fernandes Zarco, his real name. This requires further explanation.
analysis of his monogram is going to answer this question clearly.
Cristovão Colon never signed his name
on his documents or letters. He always used his sigla.
In the fifteen extant documents, to the left of
his sigla, he placed his Monogram,
which no historian or investigator had noticed, be alone deciphered, until
Here is the original sheet of paper on which my
wife, Silvia, deciphered the Monogram
Click on photos for larger view
Gonsalves Zarco, the discover of
Porto Santo (Madeira) in 1418
of João Gonsalves Zarco, a
navigator from Tomar, and member of
the Portuguese Synagogue Arco or
Zarco, which still exists today.
He was the father of Isabel Gonsalves Zarco, mother of Salvador Fernandes
Zarco. Therefore he was the grandfather of Cristovão Colon, or Salvador
on photo for larger view On the left, between
the roses, is a lady at the
entrance of the Zarco Synagogue in Tomar. On the top is the Castle of the Order
of Christ with the Charola or Octagonal Alter.
future Navigator, Salvador Fernandes Zarco, was born in 1448,
in Cuba, Alentejo, Southern part of Portugal, and at the age of six,
accompanied his mother to the island of Porto Santo,
(Madeira) after she had married
Diogo Afonso Aguiar.
Navigator started his maritime life at the age of fourteen in the Portuguese
caravels to Africa. He later married Filipa Moniz de Perestrelo, daughter of
Bartolomeu Perestrelo, Governor of Madeira Island. They had a legitimate son,
Diogo Colon, born in Portugal.
Fernandes Zarco (the future Cristofõm Colon) was a sailor for more than ten
years in the Portuguese caravels. By decree of King John II, only Portuguese
citizens could serve on the Portuguese shipsAll foreigns were thrown
overboard, by order of the King.
peculiar sign or cipher, according to Simon
Wiesenthal (1973), appears on all of those letters in
the upper left corner. This cipher consists of two Hebrew characters beth
and hei, which stand for baruch
hashem, meaning God bless
you. The letters beth and hei are intertwined like a monogram.
on photo for larger view The Blessing on the top with Hebrew
beth and hei, intertwined, like a monogram.
Underneath is in Spanish: Muy Caro hijo ( Much Dear Son)
All dozen letters to his son, Diogo Colon, are
consistent in having the three ciphers.
Here is one letter with all three ciphers or
The Blessing on the upper left corner
The Monogram on the left lower left corner.
The Sigla on the right third of the bottom of each letter.
on photo for larger view
the great discoverer, Cristóvão
Colon, was a learned man, not only in the science of navigation, but also in the
knowledge of languagesSpanish, Portuguese, Greek, Latin and Hebrew, including
the Bible. He acquired his
navigational knowledge from the School of Navigation at Sagres, Portugal.
to that fact are the intrinsic values of his Sigla, his Monogram and his
Blessing. His mother, Isabel Gonsalves Zarco, was a Portuguese
Jew from Tomar, in central Portugal, where there is the
Synagogue of Arco or Zarco, built in 1448, and open to the public today.
Was he a Portuguese Jew?
His mother was a Portuguese Jewish woman! What more do you want?
to the fact that Cristovão Colon, or Salvador
Fernandes Zarco, was 100% Portuguese is a list of more than forty Portuguese
names the Navigator gave to locations in the Greater and Lesser Antilles of
the Caribbean area during his four voyages.
Some of these are:
S. Vincente, Santa Luzia,
Guadiana, Ponta de Santo Antonio, S. João Baptista, Porto Santo, Mourão,
Isabel, Sanctus Spiritus, Sta. Clara, S. Nicolau, Conceição, Cabo de S. João,
Cabo Alfa, S. Domingos, Cabo Roxo, S. Miguel, Cabo Omega, S. Antonio,
Sta. Catarina, S. Jorge, Ponta Galera, S. Bernando, Bocas das Serpentes, Boca do
Dragão, Margarida, Ponta de Faro, Boca de Touro, Cabo Isabel, Ilha dos Guinchos,
Salvador, Santarém, Cuba, Curaçao, Brasil, Belém.
of these names on this list are common to both
Spanish and Portuguese, but some can only be Portuguese: Brasil,
Santarém, Curacao, Faro, Belém, Touro, Ponta,
Colon gave the name Salvador to the
first island he encountered because it
was his own first name. He gave the name Cuba to the second island because it
was the name of his birthplace in
The list of these Portuguese toponyms was first compiled by Mascarenhas Barreto and can be found in his book Portuguese Columbus published in 1992.
Coat of Arms of Cristofõm Colon also gives us interesting information. It takes
the shape of the letter U divided in four parts: upper left has a castle; upper
right a lion, symbol of strength. In
the lower left is a blue sea with many islandsthe Caribbean,
and the lower right has five small anchors.
Click on photo for larger view
Compare the left Coat of Arms with the right
A -stands for the Castle, symbol of arms
B - stands
for Lion, symbol of arms or strength
C - stands
for the islands in the Caribbean
D - stands
for the "coins" or the Quinas of Portugal
Why five anchors? The anchors represent five coins, and it is interesting that, in Hebrew, small anchor is anchorote or angoroth, also meaning coin. But the Coat of Arms of Portugal also has five coins. Historian Henry Harrisse (1969) and Mascarenhas Barreto (1992) have both stated that these five small anchors stand for the five coins, or Quinas, of the Portuguese Coat of Arms.
Museum House of Colon, in Valladolid, Spain
Extract of the Second Papal Bul
Navigator chose the name Colon because of its religious
and mystic power.
In addition to its meaning in punctuation and in anatomy, the word colon
has religious and spiritual
meaning and serves to ward off the evil eye. It
equates with making the sign of the cross to protect us from evil or to
ward off the evil eye. ( In the near future I will place on this
website another article dealing
with this idea).
religious, he wanted to take with him all the protection he could by using the
meaning of the colon signs. In his sigla [ : XpõFERENS . / ], his
name in the center is shielded on either end by the protective colon and
failed to discover the name Cristofõm Colon on the Papal Bulls
because they were
on the name Columbus or Colombo, a major mistake. Colombo means pigeon or
dove and the Navigator was never a pigeon
We find no single instance of an Italian place name in the Caribbean. Why?
Because the Navigator did not know how to speak or write
has the right to transpose
the Navigators name into some other name.
His true name as it appears on two Papal Bulls is Cristofõm Colon
The greatest historical
discoveries were made by amateur historians!
Henrich Schlimann, German business
man, discovered the fable City of
Jean-Francois Champollion, military
officer, another amateur , discovered the secret of the Rosetta Stone.
Michael George Francis Ventris, an
architect, deciphered the ancient Minoan writing.
There are countless amateurs
historians, anthropologists, meteorologists, who have made tremendous
discoveries which have benefit all humanity.
As a practicing physician for 41
years, I considered myself very fortunate to belong to a profession which never blushes when there is a need to change the diagnosis or change for
better treatment based on new
This is the reason why I feel sorry
and sad for the professors and teachers of history, who resist changing the
diagnosis of Cristovão Colon based
on new concrete findings.
If they have been teaching, for years, and even writing that
Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy, they are not going to change their teachings.
They do not have the guts or
"colones" to admit to
their students and to the world at large that they have been teaching the wrong
Too bad. Instead of challenging
their students to research to refute or to approve the new findings, they will
die and will carry to their graves their NARROWMINDEDNESS only to be transform into dust!
This is unfortunately, because the
TRUTH eventually will triumph!
The world famous Historian-Author James A. Michener wrote me this letter BEFORE
I discovered the name of Cristofõm Colon on both Papal Bulls.
The world famous Historian-Author James A. Michener wrote me this letter BEFORE I discovered the name of Cristofõm Colon on both Papal Bulls.
THE LETTER OF JAMES MICHENER
1992 - The Portuguese Columbus, Secret agent of King John II. New York: St. Martins Press.
1971 - The Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock, Nelson Martins, Editor. Published by the Author: Bristol, RI.
Da Silva , Manuel
Columbus wasnt Columbus,
Massachusetts Academy Magazine, Fall/Winter 1989-1990, Vol III, No. 3, pp. 3-10.
1967 - Christopher Columbus: His Life, His Work, His Remains, 3 Vols. New York: AMA Press Inc.
1973 - Sails of Hope - The Secret Mission of Christopher Columbus. New York: Macmillam.
This Monograph has Certificate of Copyright
Registration from Copyright Office records in Washington, D. C., U. S. A.
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